DexMat Carbon Nanotube Yarn: Will it Burn?

This video highlights the high temperature stability of CNT yarns compared to copper wire by applying a 1430 C butane torch to both materials. The copper wire lasts about 5 seconds before melting, while the CNT yarn survives the torch for more than 30 seconds without any visible damage.  The high thermal stability and superior thermal conductivity of the CNT material is most likely the reason that it is able to survive exposure to the flame from the torch.  The impressive thermal properties of CNT fibers and films make them highly promising for application in flame retardant materials such as those used in firefighter suits.

Carbon Nanotubes Could Provide the Military With Battery-Power in Textiles

Carbon Nanotubes Could Provide the Military With Battery-Power in Textiles

The carbon fibers can be spooled into strong, conductive thread. Like spider silk, it is stretchy and strong. Credit: Joseph Fuqua II/UC Creative Services
Carbon nanotubes could lead to clothing that can double as a battery, a discovery that could be particularly useful for the military.

A team from the University of Cincinnati—in a partnership with the Wright-Patterson Air force base—are working to take advantage of the properties of carbon nanotubes in developing new applications for soldiers in the field.

“The major challenge is translating these beautiful properties to take advantage of their strength, conductivity and heat resistance,” UC professor Vesselin Shanov, who co-directs UC’s Nanoworld Laboratories, said in a statement.

Graduate student Mark Haase has worked with Air Force researchers over the past year to find applications for carbon nanotubes using X-ray computer tomography to analyze samples.

“This pushes us to work in groups and to specialize,” Haase said in a statement. “These are the same dynamics we see in corporate research and industry. Engineering is a group activity these days so we can take advantage of that.”

The researchers used chemical vapor deposition to grow the carbon nanotubes on silicon wafers the size of a quarter under heat in a vacuum chamber.

“Each particle has a nucleation point,” Haase said. “Colloquially, we can call it a seed. Our carbon-containing gas is introduced into the reactor. When the carbon gas interacts with our ‘seed,’ it breaks down and re-forms on the surface. We let it grow until it reaches the size we want.”

UC’s Nanoworld Lab set a world record in 2007 by growing a nanotube that stretched nearly two centimeters, the longest carbon nanotube array produced in a lab at the time. The lab can currently create nanotubes that are substantially longer.

They were able to stretch the little fibrous square over an industrial spool in the lab to convert the sheet of carbon to a spun thread that can be woven into textiles.

“It’s exactly like a textile,” Shanov said. “We can assemble them like a machine thread and use them in applications ranging from sensors to track heavy metals in water or energy storage devices, including super capacitors and batteries.”

This ultimately could lead to a much lighter load for soldiers in battle.

“As much as one-third of the weight they carry is just batteries to power all of their equipment,” Haase said. “So even if we can shave a little off that, it’s a big advantage for them in the field.”

The study was published in Materials Research Express.
Full article by Kenny Walter – Digital Reporter @RandMagazine here.

Electrical Interconnect Applications for Carbon Nanotubes in Military Aerospace Systems

Flexible, lightweight, and versatile CNTs are becoming a valuable material in conductor applications for the military and a host of other markets.

Carbon nanotubes are one of the most unique and interesting materials developed in the last decade. These products, widely known as CNTs, can be manufactured by various methods, but are most commonly made using chemical vapor deposition, a high-temperature manufacturing process used to create durable, solid, high-performance materials. The end result is a paper-like, ultra-thin sheet that can be further processed into a variety of forms suitable for a wide range of applications.

This material can become an electrically charged carbon sheet with some very special properties that are of great utility in conductor development. CNT sheets can be spun into fiber-like strands and twisted into various configurations that simulate copper stranding. An insulated jacket is then extruded on top of the carbon nanotube to create a wire. The resulting product is approximately one-eighth the weight of a typical copper conductor wire and has a strength-to-weight ratio 117 times that of steel. Additionally, because the material is fundamentally a type of plastic, it does not have the same fatigue characteristics as copper wire.

CNT technology can also be used to replace copper shields. By simply taking a thin CNT sheet and wrapping it around the wires to form a shield (see Figure 1), designers can achieve substantial weight savings over copper shields.

Challenges to CNT Adoption

Cost

CNT technology has had limited viability for use in many aerospace applications due to its higher initial costs. However, costs are coming down quickly. In the early development years of CNTs, the material cost around 500 times as much as copper. Today, the cost is closer to 10 times that of copper and, within the next five years, CNT is expected to command only a 20–30% price premium.

Electrical Conductivity

The electrical conductivity of CNT technology is vital to its overall success in electrical interconnect applications. In the early research and development phase, the resistivity of electrically charged CNTs was about 200 times that of copper. More recently, that value dropped down to only 20 times that of copper. Now samples from manufacturers are getting closer to 10 times the resistivity of copper. The current objective for leading developers of this technology is to bring it down to five times that of copper. If that happens, it will be a real game-changer.

EMI Protection

Lightweight shielding is very important to the defense industry, and CNTs show great promise here. Currently, CNT shields exhibit performance similar to copper at frequencies above 1GHz, but performance drops off significantly, especially at frequencies below 100Mhz. The weight savings over copper can be as much as 80%, though, so there is a trade-off that largely depends on an application’s EMI requirements. Solutions include using a combination of a CNT shield with a smaller-gauge copper shield, which could still reduce weight and perform reasonably well.

Termination

A lot of investigative work has been done on both crimping and soldering CNT material. To date, the crimp method shows the best results from a viability standpoint. Current mil spec standard tools and crimp contacts

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Connectors

Initial research into using CNTs to advance connector technology has focused on two primary areas: coaxial cables with RF connectors and mil standard 1553 data bus cables with dedicated discrete connectors. There are also efforts to evaluate CNTs with standard 38999 Series III connectors, as well as with miniature push-pull circular connectors commonly used in soldier systems. With the exception of the RF connectors, the preliminary results are encouraging, and show viability. However, this application may require some minor modifications to either the contacts or to the inserts. More research is still needed.

Manufacturers

The development of carbon nanotubes is truly a global effort led by several universities, including Rice University in Houston, that collaborate with CNT producers. Over the last few years, manufacturers in the US, Japan, and other countries have significantly scaled up production to help reduce costs to the point at which CNTs can become a viable multi-use product. These suppliers of CNT yarns and sheets are also working closely with several wire manufacturers to produce primary wire, cables, and RF coaxial cables.

Electrical Applications

One immediate application being evaluated by the defense industry is the replacement of copper-based 1553 database cables with CNT conductors and shields. The weight savings they offer can be upwards of several pounds, which is an especially significant advantage for space applications, as each pound of payload typically costs upwards of $10,000 to launch into space. Electrical testing has already been conducted to determine the signal integrity loss of CNT conductors and shields and has returned surprisingly good results, showing little signal loss degradation on lengths up to 10–15 feet, which will only improve as the conductivity of CNT materials continues to improve.

In addition to the space market, two helicopter manufacturers in the United States are conducting independent test studies to determine the viability of CNT materials for use in the rotary wing market.

A Bright Future for CNTs

CNT’s unique set of properties is helping the material find a place in applications across nearly every industry. CNTs are currently being employed in and evaluated for applications including optical power detectors, radar absorption, microelectronics, transistors, thermal management, solar panels, and even body armor. With this versatility, the future looks extremely bright for carbon-nanotube-based products.

Original story by by Tom Briere on June 20, 2017

Mil-Aero Industries Eye Carbon Nanotubes as They Target Cost Savings

Ultra-lightweight carbon nanotubes may replace copper wires.

Today’s aerospace and aircraft industries focus on size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C), and cost is now often figured for program or operational life, which may total thousands of dollars per pound. This gives tremendous impetus and justification to accept high-cost new technology to obtain weight savings.

Reducing F-35 by 20 Pounds Could Provide $230M Savings

Satellites have always paid extra to reduce weight since each payload pound may cost more than $5,000 to launch. Studies by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) show that the new F-35 has a $4,500 cost per pound over the aircraft’s operational program life

until 2070. (For comparison, the cost per pound for the F-22 is estimated at $3,500.) The F-35 has projected production of2,557 aircraft for the U.S. and nine for export customers scheduled through 2037. Therefore, a weight reduction of just 20lbs per plane could result in savings of $230,000,000! Even if this is off by 50%, the expected benefits already are driving new industry developments.

In addition to fighter aircraft, each ounce is also critical in future soldier wearables, UAVs, portable radars, vehicle communications, and other equipment to increase survivability, mission endurance, and success.

Interconnect weight savings are being obtained by incorporating higher contact density, composite materials, combinational multi-port connectors, and other approaches. However, a new technology involving carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is emerging and offers a lightweight alternative to copper wire and other conductive shielding materials. A carbon nanotube is produced as a layer of carbon atoms in a tubular configuration, in single- or multiple-walled versions.

CNTs are being mixed with polymers to create high-strength, lightweight composite materials. CNT fibers can be made into conductive sheets and tapes, which offer a myriad of potentials. Optimal performance may result from spinning CNT fibers into conductive threads (referred to as yarn) to potentially replace copper wires in harnesses, motor windings, and shields.

Another important gain is reliability. CNT fibers and yarn can withstand millions of bending cycles, while standard fiber/wire would have yielded many times. The minimum bending radius requirements of today’s cable is not applicable for CNT fibers and cables.

Market potentials for CNT technology are bringing new companies into the forefront. Nanocomp Technologies offers commercial CNT fibers created using a carbon vapor deposition (CVD) reactor and then formed into sheets or fibers that can be twisted into shields or primary conductors. Another supplier is Syscom Advanced Materials Inc., which provides a variety of metal-clad fibers.

DexMat Inc. in Houston produces CNT fiber using a wet acid process that draws multiple fibers that can be shaped into a shield or primary conductor, and future developments for  include flat tape. The company boasts a strong Ph.D. cadre from nearby Rice University where they have successfully fabricated coaxial cable inner and outer conductors by coating a solution of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid to achieve a two-times better conductivity than seen previously. This may prove an attractive alternative to commercial coax cable using tin-coated-copper with comparable attenuation and greater mechanical durability with 97% reduced mass, according to the company.

Usually, the outer conductor is the heaviest portion of today’s cables. In coax, the outer conductor provides both signal transmission and electromagnetic shielding. While shielding does not require high conductivity in the outer conductor, signal loss (i.e., signal attenuation) through the transmission line is significantly affected by the conductivity and architecture of the outer conductor. The new solution-coated CNT outer conductors offer near-term application potentials. Several connector companies are reportedly studying termination techniques.

Carbon Nanotube Materials Provide Shielding

TE Connectivity has been working to use CNT materials for shielding and data transmission cables. In a paper presented at the 2012 IWCS Conference, Dr. Stefanie Harvey, senior manager for corporate strategy, reported that they had achieved greater than 50dB shielding effectiveness in the GHz range, and their “data transmission cables using a yarn format perform comparably to MIL-STD-1553.” In the January 5, 2016 issue of ASSEMBLY, Dr. Harvey reviewed how replacing the braid in RG-58 cable would reduce weight from 38.8 grams per meter (g/m) to 11.5g/m, while replacing the center conductor with CNT yarn would further reduce weight to 7.3g/m for a combined weight reduction of 80%.

Composites are used to replace heavy copper wire with metal plated aramid fibers for use in wire and cable EMI shielding. EMI shielding made with plated aramid fibers can reduce weight by as much as 80%, leading to major weight reduction depending on the size of the aircraft or satellite. Aramid fibers are a class of strong, heat-resistant synthetic fibers, the best known of which is DuPont™ Kevlar®, used in ballistic-rated body armor.

Carlisle Interconnect Technologies (formerly Micro-Coax Inc.) provides a unique weight-reducing EMI/RFI shielding solution using their proprietary high-strength ARACON® brand metal clad fibers. Ron Souders, technical director, Carlisle Interconnect Technologies, advises that, for typical applications, switching to ARACON allows a weight savings of 80% when compared to traditional metal braided or woven EMI shielding products. This offers the conductivity of an outer metal coating with the strength, light weight, and flexibility of aramid fiber.

*Note: DexMat also provides products for shielding applications not mentioned in this article.

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Ron Souders further explained that the specific gravity of aramid fiber is only 1.44g/cc, compared to copper at 8.9g/cc, and that, even with the addition of metal coatings, the specific gravity of ARACON fibers ranges from 3 – 5g/cc. The tensile strength (measured in kilopounds per square inch, or Ksi) of the aramid core (350Ksi) is from three to 10 times higher than that of traditional or high-strength copper cores, which typically span 35 to 95Ksi. Since ARACON fibers behave like a textile, they are far more flexible and compliant than metal.

Industry Standardization is Underway

The benefits offered by CNT fiber, whether as EMI/RFI shielding, signal or coaxial cable, or other new components, have prompted the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) in Patuxent River, Maryland, to sponsor the establishment of suitable “Military Specification for Conductive Carbon Conductors used in Aircraft Wiring,” eventually with QPL sources. The proposed formal qualification program should stabilize components and materials for future use.

CNT technology also was included in a recent multiple-day RF coordination meeting held in February by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) at the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC). Suppliers of basic CNT materials, wire, cables, cable assembles, and signal and RF/microwave connectors are now working on both application-specific and generalized products to achieve the weight reduction and reliability benefits offered by CNT and other metallized fibers.

Original story by David Shaff – April 28, 2017

DexMat Awarded Phase II SBIR: High Temperature Electric Wires

Abstract: Electric wires and cables constitute by far the largest weight portion of aircraft electrical power systems, as well as a large fraction of the entire aircraft weight. For example, a modern transport aircraft contains over 200 miles of wire, and an F-22 aircraft has about 20 miles of wiring. The increased emphasis and reliance on fly-by-wire technology and avionics for modern aircraft has resulted in wiring becoming a critical safety-of-flight system. Aerospace vehicles continue to increase in wire system complexity and volume as traditional mechanical systems, such as flight controls and flight surface control actuators, are converted to all electric systems. This Phase II Proposal involves a dual pronged strategy for developing high temperature CNT-based power cables: 1) Dexmat will seek to improve the underlying CNT yarn conductivity with and without dopants that do not require encapsulation (i.e., non-transitory dopants); 2) Improve the encapsulation process to enable the use of dopants that do require encapsulation.

Project Details: https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/1488599

DexMat Awarded Phase I SBIR: High-Temperature Electric Wires

Abstract: Electric wires and cables constitute by far the largest weight portion of aircraft electrical power systems, as well as a large fraction of the entire aircraft weight. For example, a modern transport aircraft contains over 200 miles of wire, and an F-22 aircraft has about 20 miles of wiring. The increased emphasis and reliance on fly-by-wire technology and avionics for modern aircraft has resulted in wiring becoming a critical safety-of-flight system. Aerospace vehicles continue to increase in wire system complexity and volume as traditional mechanical systems, such as flight controls and flight surface control actuators, are converted to all electric systems. DexMat is developing a technology for coating doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with impermeable barrier films. Under this Phase I project, DexMat will adapt the use of metallic barrier film coatings to prevent the egression of CNT dopants and, thus, preserve high electrical conductivity even if the fiber is subjected to high-temperature environments.; BENEFIT: The proposed primary production of DexMat technology is directed to the commercial and military aviation segments, mainly companies seeking to reduce the weight of their aircraft design. Beyond these customers, the potential uses of CNT wires and films include a broad spectrum of military and civilian applicationsfrom lightweight aerospace cables, to power and data conduits for wearable electronics, to health monitoring and diagnostic sensors.

Project Details: https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/1410755

DexMat Awarded Phase I SBIR: High Conductivity CNT Wiring for High Speed Data Cables

Abstract: In an era of reduced Defense budgets and increasing threats, military planners are seeking new technologies to reduce operating costs and increase operation capabilities for space and aviation platforms, and weight reduction is an attractive target. For example, transportation costs to geosynchronous orbits using a NASA reusable launch vehicle are close to $10,000 per pound of payload. Copper wiring, which makes up as much as one-third of the weight of a 15-ton satellite and 20 miles of an F-22 aircraft, is a clear target for weight reduction. Half of this wire weight is typically in the EMI shielding. Developing new lightweight, conductive materials that replace copper in the shielding and core conductor could serve as a lead candidate for radically reducing this weight. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine high strength, electrical and thermal conductivity with low density, which makes them ideal for applications where weight reduction is a priority. DexMat is commercializing CNT technology that has shown the highest published values for conductivity and mechanical strength of CNT materials. This Phase I Proposal will examine the feasibility of developing CNT-based cables with solution-processing technology capable of producing high performance CNT fibers and coatings, without the use of binders and wetting agents.BENEFIT:The potential benefits of this innovation could include military development for future ground, air or space systems that have stringent weight requirements, including launch vehicles, UAVs, portable communications,small satellites,etc. Commercial Application: Any commercial development for electronic-heavy systems with stringent weight requirements, including jetliners, satellites, small computers, etc.

Project Details: https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/824749